Rapid development of solid state lithium battery-Lithium - Ion Battery Equipment

Rapid development of solid state lithium battery -Lithium - Ion Battery Equipment

The progress of mobile devices and electric vehicles is driving the battery technology to obtain new breakthroughs, because only new progress in battery design can meet the energy demand of today's world.

From handheld tools to computers and mobile phones, uninterruptible power supplies to satellites, batteries have always been a key design feature of everything. For many years, battery research has been carried out to improve energy density. During the rise of handheld devices, people needed higher energy density. The increase in telecommunications satellites means that battery weight is a factor. Every technological advance tends to put battery function first. While the laboratory is committed to upgrading battery technology, electronic technology continues to develop at a faster rate - requiring increasing energy and power.

However, it was not until the emergence of electric vehicles (EVs) that manufacturers began to seriously consider the importance of batteries for providing a wider range, higher reliability and lower cost. For the electric vehicle market, size and weight are as important as cycle life. Classified as primary (usually used for long-term, low-power applications) and secondary (rechargeable) batteries, they have witnessed innovation after innovation as they attempt to provide higher energy density than ever before.(Lithium - Ion Battery Equipment)

Current status of battery

The most advanced primary battery technology is based on lithium metal, thionyl chloride (Li-SOCl2) and manganese oxide (Li-MnO2). They are suitable for five to twenty years of long-term applications, including metering, electronic charging, tracking and the Internet of Things (IoT). The main chemical composition of rechargeable batteries for telecommunications and railway applications is nickel based (Ni Cd, Ni MH) batteries. Lithium based (Li ion) batteries occupy a leading position in the consumer electronics market and expand their applications to electric vehicles (EVs). It should be noted that the number of lithium-ion batteries used in electric vehicles exceeds the sum of mobile and IT applications.

Driven by the growth of mobile phones, tablets and laptops, lithium ion batteries have been driven to achieve higher and higher energy density. The energy density is directly related to the number of hours the battery can work. Battery experts in this field constantly adjust their technology to achieve higher density, including changing chemical composition and modifying design. They even studied the supply chain of raw materials and believed that it was expensive and difficult to purchase cobalt as an additive for lithium ion design.

Lithium ion batteries are the main source of battery power and storage today. Photo: Shuaifude battery

The energy density is expressed in watt hours per kilogram (Wh/kg). Lithium ion is designed to provide a maximum density of 250-270Wh/kg for commercially available batteries. For comparison, please consider that the power of lead-acid battery is lower than 100Wh/kg and that of nickel metal hydride battery is slightly higher than 100Wh/kg. In addition to energy density, power density is also an important consideration. Power density measures the relationship between the rate at which the battery can discharge (or charge) and the energy density, which is a measure of the total amount of charging. For example, high-power batteries can be discharged in a few minutes. A high-energy battery that can discharge in hours. Essentially, battery design is to exchange energy density for power density. According to Joong SunPark, Technical Manager of Solid State Technology,

Lithium ion battery technology has made significant progress in the past 30 years, but due to material limitations, the best lithium ion battery is approaching its performance limit. They also have serious safety problems - for example, overheating can ignite - leading to increased costs because safety features must be designed in the battery system.

When asked about alternative materials for lithium ion, Park said: "Alternative materials and battery chemistry are being developed to surpass lithium ion, including lithium sulfur, sodium, magnesium (Li/S, Na, Mg) Design. Once commercialized, these batteries will certainly have potential advantages over existing lithium ion batteries in terms of energy density or cost. However, compared with lithium ion battery, the maturity of technology is still low. Therefore, further breakthroughs from available materials to manufacturing are needed to compete with lithium ion. " Finally, due to the gap between actual production and academic research, Li/S battery seems not ready for commercialization, but it is being carefully studied.



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