New Technology of Solid State Battery -Lithium - Ion Battery Equipment

New technologies of solid state battery emerge endlessly -Lithium - Ion Battery Equipment

As the "heart" of electric vehicles, power batteries are attracting as much attention as the current hot new energy vehicles. Among them, lithium ion batteries are favored by the new energy vehicle industry due to their high energy density, low self discharge rate, high cycle efficiency, long cycle life and other characteristics, and have huge market development potential.

However, the current problem of unstable safety of lithium-ion batteries still exists. In addition, the frequent occurrence of battery "irregular fire" accidents has been stimulating consumers' nerves. The development of solid-state battery technology may become a new option to solve the safety problems of electric vehicles.

Trend of solid electrolyte

"The cost of lithium-ion batteries used now is high, and the lithium-ion batteries produced have many potential safety hazards." Said Wang Zhenbo, a professor at Harbin University of Technology.

It is understood that the frequent accidents of large power batteries in recent years are largely due to the use of liquid electrolyte inside the batteries. "Safety is critical to the energy storage of lithium ion batteries." Li Liangliang, associate professor of the School of Materials, Tsinghua University, stressed that "currently, commercial lithium-ion batteries generally use organic liquid electrolyte, which has the disadvantage of being easy to burn and may leak liquid, causing environmental pollution."(Lithium - Ion Battery Equipment)

The lithium ion battery equipment fire in Lingyan, South Korea, two months ago seems to confirm this statement.

"At present, the liquid organic electrolyte we choose to use is flammable and explosive. Replacing the liquid electrolyte with solid electrolyte is recognized as one of the most effective ways to improve the safety performance of lithium batteries." Dong Ximu, associate researcher of Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Process, Chinese Academy of Sciences, said.

Li Liangliang said: "The solid electrolyte is not flammable and will not produce liquid electrolyte, so it is not corrosive. It is an effective way to solve the battery safety problem, and also conforms to the trend of battery development in the future."

Difficult to break through technical bottlenecks

"High safety is the basis and premise for the application of energy storage batteries. Solidification is the best way to solve the safety of secondary batteries. Solid state lithium batteries have entered the stage of accelerating global layout and research and development, and many famous institutions are developing solid state lithium batteries." Wen Zhaowei said.

At present, many battery and automobile manufacturers, including Samsung of South Korea, Toyota of Japan and Ningde Times of China, have increased their investment in solid state battery research and development, and some batteries have entered the stage of loading and testing. Although the prospect is promising, due to various problems in technology and process, the road to develop solid state batteries is by no means smooth.

First of all, efficient electrolyte material systems are lacking. Wen Zhaowei pointed out that at present, solid state battery materials are developing rapidly, but their comprehensive application is relatively lacking. "As the core material of solid state battery, there has been a breakthrough in the single index of solid lithium ion conductor at present, but the comprehensive performance cannot meet the demand for large-scale energy storage." In this regard, Dong Chimu also believes that "there are performance weaknesses in the solid-state electrolytes used in solid-state batteries today, and there is still a big gap from the requirements of high-performance lithium ion battery systems."

Secondly, the interface treatment of solid electrolyte and electrode is also a major problem faced by solid state batteries. "In the solid electrolyte, the lithium ion transmission impedance is large, and the rigid interface contact area with the electrode is small. The change of electrolyte volume during charging and discharging is easy to damage the stability of the interface." Li Liangliang pointed out. In addition, in solid state lithium battery, in addition to the interface between electrolyte and electrode, there are complex multi-level interfaces inside the electrode. Electrochemical and deformation factors will lead to contact failure and affect battery performance.

Thirdly, the poor stability in long-term use is also the bottleneck of the development of long-life energy storage solid state batteries. The structure and interface of solid state battery will deteriorate with time during service, but the mechanism of degradation affecting the comprehensive performance of battery is still unclear, and it is difficult to achieve long-term application.



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