Create the next generation of lithium battery -Lithium - Ion Battery Equipment

Create the next generation of lithium battery -Lithium - Ion Battery Equipment

Lithium metal batteries are "close relatives" of rechargeable lithium batteries, which are widely used in portable electronic products and electric vehicles. As the next generation of energy storage equipment, lithium metal batteries have great prospects.

Now, a new study by researchers at Stanford University in the United States has pointed out a way forward for manufacturing better and safer lithium metal batteries. The relevant research was recently published in the Journal of the Electrochemical Society.

Longer-life lithium battery

Compared with lithium batteries, lithium metal batteries can store more energy, charge faster and weigh less.

But so far, the commercial use of rechargeable lithium metal batteries is still limited.

One important reason is the formation of "dendrites" - thin, metal-like dendrites that grow as lithium metal accumulates on the electrodes in the battery. These dendrites will reduce the battery performance and eventually lead to failure, and in some cases, even cause fire.

Stanford University researchers have solved the problem of dendrite from a theoretical perspective. They have developed a mathematical model that can combine the physical and chemical problems related to the formation of "dendrites".

The model provides an insight that the exchange of certain characteristics in a new electrolyte (a medium in which lithium ions move between the two electrodes in the battery) can slow down or even completely stop the growth of dendrites.

"Our goal is to serve the design of lithium metal batteries with longer life." said Weiyu Li, the first author of the study and a doctoral student in energy engineering at Stanford University. "Our mathematical framework explains the key chemical and physical processes of lithium metal batteries."

"This study provides some specific details about dendritic formation conditions and potential ways to inhibit their growth," said Hamdi Tchelepi, co-author of the report and professor of the School of Earth, Energy and Environmental Sciences at Stanford University.(Lithium - Ion Battery Equipment)

Prevent dendrite formation

For a long time, researchers have been trying to understand the factors leading to dendrite formation. However, laboratory work is labor-intensive and it is difficult to explain the research results. To this end, researchers have developed a mathematical representation of the electric field inside the battery and the transmission of lithium ions through electrolyte materials, as well as other relevant mechanisms.

In this way, with the research results in hand, the experimenter can focus on the physically reasonable combination of materials and buildings. "It is hoped that other researchers can use our research to design equipment with correct performance and reduce the range of repeated tests and experimental changes that they must carry out in the laboratory," Tchelepi said.

Specifically, the new strategy of electrolyte design required by this study includes understanding the anisotropy of materials, which means that they exhibit different properties in different directions. Wood is a typical anisotropic material, and its texture has strong directionality. In many cases, you can see the lines of wood instead of the texture.

In the case of anisotropic electrolyte, these materials can fine-tune the complex interaction between ion transport and interface chemistry and prevent the formation of dendrites. The researchers point out that some liquid crystals and gel show these desired properties.

Another method determined by this study is concentrated on the battery partition - a thin film to prevent the contact and short circuit of the electrodes at both ends of the battery. They said that a new type of separator with pore characteristics could be designed to make lithium ions pass back and forth in the electrolyte in an anisotropic way.

Build "digital avatar"

The team looked forward to seeing other researchers continue to study the "clues" they gave. The next steps include manufacturing equipment that depends on the new electrolyte formula and battery architecture, and testing what might prove to be effective, scalable and economical.

"In general, there is still a lot of research to be done in the material design and experimental verification of complex battery systems," said Daniel Tartakovsky, the co-author of the study and professor of energy engineering at Stanford University.



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