About power lithium battery recycling -Lithium - Ion Battery Equipment

About power lithium battery recycling -Lithium - Ion Battery Equipment

Despite the "cheat compensation" storm, the support of the decision-making level for new energy vehicles has not decreased. The recently held executive meeting of the State Council has determined five major measures to further support the new energy vehicle industry, including requiring central state organs, government departments and public institutions in cities where new energy vehicles are promoted to be used to increase the proportion of new energy vehicles purchased in the total number of vehicles equipped and updated that year to more than 50%. The relevant person in charge of the State Administration of Organ Affairs also said recently that the next step will be to strengthen the promotion and application of new energy vehicles in national public institutions, and strive to widely use new energy vehicles by 2020.

According to the data released by the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology on January 11 this year, the annual output of new energy vehicles in 2015 has reached 379000, including 142800 pure electric passenger vehicles and 63600 plug-in hybrid passenger vehicles, with a year-on-year growth of three times; The cumulative output of corresponding pure electric commercial vehicles and plug-in commercial vehicles is 147900 and 24600 respectively.(Lithium - Ion Battery Equipment)

The industrial chain of new energy vehicles (mainly electric vehicles) has been rapidly established, and the production of power batteries has entered an unprecedented peak. According to statistics, the load of power battery exceeded 20 billion watt hours in 2015, and experts predict that it will increase to about 50 billion watt hours in 2016. Who will recycle so many batteries? How to establish the recycling industry chain? They are all problems that need to be solved urgently.

Difficult battery management

The recovery of power lithium battery is complex, and experts suggest that it should be handled by a professional recovery organization

As early as 2003, the Technical Policy for the Prevention and Control of Waste Battery Pollution clearly stipulated that manufacturers and importers of rechargeable batteries and button type batteries, and manufacturers using rechargeable batteries or button type batteries should be responsible for recycling waste rechargeable batteries and button type batteries.

Recently, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology and the National Development and Reform Commission jointly issued the Technical Policy for the Recycling and Utilization of Electric Vehicle Power Batteries (hereinafter referred to as the Policy), which for the first time defined the main responsible parties. Electric vehicle manufacturers, power battery manufacturers, cascade battery manufacturers, and scrapped vehicle recycling and dismantling enterprises bear different responsibilities, and also take charge of the collection, classification, storage, transportation, cascade utilization The regeneration, supervision and management and other links are stipulated.

At present, the power batteries are mainly lithium ion batteries and nickel hydrogen batteries. In the production and consumption process of new energy vehicle power battery, battery manufacturers, vehicle manufacturers and consumers will be involved. The battery manufacturer is responsible for producing batteries and related systems and assembling them according to the requirements of the vehicle manufacturer; The vehicle manufacturer is responsible for assembling the battery assembly to the vehicle and conducting necessary debugging.

The disposal of waste lithium batteries requires such steps as discharging, disassembling, crushing, sorting, shell recycling, acid and alkali extraction, and its professionalism is beyond the unilateral reach of existing lithium ion manufacturers and vehicle manufacturers.

The power batteries recovered may be of different specifications and models from different manufacturers and models, and the ways of grouping and series parallel connection are different. Even if batteries of the same brand and specification are used for a period of time, their internal resistance, capacity, self discharge, electrode surface state, etc. will also have large differences. Such a messy battery is used in a large-scale energy storage project, and the difficulty of battery management can be imagined.

For this reason, some experts said that in view of the complexity of the recycling process of power lithium batteries, it would be better to have a dedicated battery recycling agency for recycling and reprocessing. Recycling and reuse of discarded lithium batteries for electric vehicles is a new industry, and both automobile enterprises and battery enterprises will face many challenges.

Who will bear the recovery cost?

It is necessary to balance the interests of the whole vehicle, battery manufacturers and consumers

In order to implement the spirit of the central document, local governments have issued encouraging policies. Shanghai has issued a policy that the government will subsidize 1000 yuan/set for automobile enterprises to recycle power batteries; Shenzhen has established a power battery utilization and recycling system: for every car sold, the manufacturer will pay 600 yuan and the government will pay 300 yuan to recycle power batteries, and a battery recycling mechanism will be initially established.

However, it is much more difficult to recycle the waste batteries of domestic pure electric vehicles than expected, mainly as follows: first, there is no fixed standard for the lithium battery pack structure, and the recycling process is cumbersome; Secondly, there are few recycling points for lithium battery packs, and the policy incentives for recycling are insufficient; The most important thing is that the recycling process of lithium battery pack is complex and backward, and the cost exceeds the market value of goods.

At present, relevant departments have organized new energy vehicle enterprises, experts, etc. to discuss the national standards for power battery recycling of new energy vehicles, focusing on issues such as cost bearing in the battery recycling process.

In this regard, the battery manufacturer believes that if the power battery is sold to the vehicle enterprise, the vehicle enterprise should be responsible for the relevant costs of battery recovery; Vehicle enterprises believe that after the battery is used by consumers, the recovery cost should be shared by vehicle enterprises and consumers; However, consumers believe that the batteries purchased by themselves are recycled, and vehicle enterprises and battery manufacturers should make up for this loss. How to balance the rights and interests of these three parties is also a problem that needs careful consideration by the decision-making department.

What modes does recycling take?

It is necessary to strengthen research on technology and standards, formulate relevant standards and promote cascade utilization

On January 23 this year, at the China Electric Vehicle Hundred People's Conference Forum, Wan Gang, Minister of the Ministry of Science and Technology, said that power batteries, especially lithium-ion power batteries, may not be scrapped immediately after recycling, but can be used step by step. In the future, it is necessary to strengthen the research on testing and evaluation technologies and standards such as quality, performance identification and grading of retired batteries, formulate relevant standards, and promote cascade utilization.

Internationally, the main application fields of cascade utilization of power lithium batteries are household energy storage, new energy distributed generation energy storage, disaster prevention strongholds and communication base stations. The applications in these fields have low requirements for energy density, but relatively strict requirements for battery cycle life and price. Multiple costs such as battery recycling, conversion and transportation need to be considered.

The major enterprises are still in the exploratory stage of what mode should be adopted for the recovery of power lithium batteries. The Daimler Benz recycling lithium battery energy storage project may be put into operation in 2016. It is unknown whether only the discarded power lithium batteries of Mercedes Benz electric vehicles will be used, but this may be one of the effective cases for vehicle enterprises to recycle and reuse power lithium batteries. In addition, there is also a business model of cooperation between battery manufacturers and professional recycling enterprises in China. For example, BYD, a battery manufacturer, has recently cooperated with Greenway, a lithium battery recycling enterprise, and hopes to achieve win-win results in the field of power lithium battery recycling through the promotion, operation and operation of energy storage power station and photovoltaic power station projects.

There are also battery manufacturers that recycle the battery for internal use. For example, Watma will build a power storage station after safety testing of the recycled power lithium battery. It will discharge during the day and charge at night to ensure the power required by the factory during the day and reduce part of the cost of electricity used by the enterprise. In addition, some insiders said that lithium power batteries can be used in electric tricycles, two wheeled vehicles, backup power supplies, energy storage batteries, or metal element extraction according to different situations of scrapped power lithium batteries, so as to achieve the purpose of cascade utilization.

Among the electric vehicle models announced by the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, AVIC Lithium Battery (Luoyang) Co., Ltd. (hereinafter referred to as "AVIC Lithium Battery") has become the power battery enterprise with the largest number of supporting battery models, and the total number of models using AVIC Lithium Battery continues to rank first. It is reported that this company has been building an industrial chain of power battery recycling and cascade utilization, and has reached a consensus with some new energy vehicle enterprises.

No matter what kind of business model is adopted, experts in the industry suggest not to be too decentralized with the main business of the enterprise, otherwise higher economic benefits will not be obtained. In addition, in order to improve the recycling efficiency of power lithium batteries and form an industry, it is necessary to establish special recycling sites, which should be far away from the city center and not too many, to avoid the potential environmental pollution caused by the centralized placement of discarded lithium batteries. At the same time, enterprises should carry out unified recycling, processing, transportation and raw material re circulation to avoid disorder of lead battery recycling in the past.



Contact Us

24 hours online service