Technical route of lithium battery recycling -Lithium - Ion Battery Equipment

Analyze the international lithium battery recycling technology route -Lithium - Ion Battery Equipment

Lithium ion battery is composed of positive and negative electrode sheets, adhesive, electrolyte and separator. In industry, manufacturers mainly use lithium cobalate, lithium manganate, lithium nickel cobalt manganate ternary materials and lithium ferrous phosphate as cathode materials of lithium ion batteries, and natural graphite and artificial graphite as cathode active materials. Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) is a widely used positive electrode binder with high viscosity, good chemical stability and physical properties. Lithium ion batteries produced in industry mainly use electrolyte lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6) and solution prepared with organic solvent as electrolyte, and use organic membrane, such as porous polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP) and other polymers as battery separator. Lithium ion batteries are generally considered as environment-friendly and pollution-free green batteries, but improper recycling of lithium ion batteries will also cause pollution. Although lithium ion batteries do not contain mercury, cadmium, lead and other toxic heavy metals, the positive and negative electrode materials and electrolyte of the batteries still have a great impact on the environment and human body. If ordinary garbage treatment methods are used to treat lithium ion batteries (landfill, incineration, composting, etc.), cobalt, nickel, lithium, manganese and other metals in the batteries, as well as various organic and inorganic compounds, will cause metal pollution, organic pollution, dust pollution, acid and alkali pollution. Lithium ion electrolyte machine conversion products, such as LiPF6, lithium hexafluoroarsenate (LiAsF6), lithium trifluoromethanesulfonate (LiCF3SO3), hydrofluoric acid (HF), solvents and hydrolysis products, such as ethylene glycol dimethyl ether (DME), methanol, formic acid, are toxic substances. Therefore, waste lithium ion batteries need to be recycled to reduce the harm to the natural environment and human health.(Lithium - Ion Battery Equipment)

1、 Production and use of lithium ion battery

Lithium ion batteries have the advantages of high energy density, high voltage, small self discharge, good cycle performance, safe operation, etc., and are relatively friendly to the natural environment, so they are widely used in electronic products, such as mobile phones, tablets, laptops and digital cameras. In addition, lithium-ion batteries are widely used in energy storage power systems such as water power, fire power, wind power and solar energy, and gradually become the best choice for power batteries. The emergence of lithium iron phosphate battery has promoted the development and application of lithium ion battery in electric vehicle industry. With the gradual increase of people's demand for electronic products and the gradual acceleration of the upgrading of electronic products, as well as the impact of the rapid development of new energy vehicles, the global market has an increasing demand for lithium-ion batteries, and the growth rate of battery output has increased year by year.

The huge demand for lithium-ion batteries in the market, on the one hand, will lead to a large number of waste batteries in the future. How to deal with these waste lithium-ion batteries to reduce their impact on the environment is an urgent problem to be solved; On the other hand, in order to meet the huge demand of the market, manufacturers need to produce a large number of lithium-ion batteries to supply the market. At present, the cathode materials used to produce lithium ion batteries mainly include lithium cobalate, lithium manganate, lithium nickel cobalt manganate ternary materials, lithium ferrous phosphate, etc. Therefore, waste lithium ion batteries contain more cobalt (Co), lithium (Li), nickel (Ni), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), iron (Fe) and other metal resources, including a variety of rare metal resources. Cobalt is a scarce strategic metal in China, which is mainly imported to meet the growing demand [3]. Part of the metal content in waste lithium-ion batteries is higher than that in natural ores. Therefore, in the case of increasing shortage of production resources, recycling of waste batteries has certain economic value.

2、 Recycling and treatment technology of lithium ion battery

The recycling process of waste lithium-ion batteries mainly includes pretreatment, secondary treatment and advanced treatment. Because there is still some electricity left in the waste battery, the pretreatment process includes deep discharge process, crushing and physical separation; The purpose of secondary treatment is to realize the complete separation of positive and negative active materials from the substrate. Heat treatment, organic solvent dissolution, alkali solution dissolution and electrolysis are commonly used to achieve the complete separation of the two;



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